Index des sujets : Guerre de Succession d'Espagne

Index des sujets : Guerre de Succession d'Espagne

Index des sujets : Guerre de Succession d'Espagne

Guerres et traitésBataillesBiographiesArmesnotions


Guerres et traités


Batailles

Audenarde, bataille d', 11 juillet 1708 (Belgique)
Ramillies, bataille de, 23 mai 1706
Schellenberg, Bataille de la, 2 juillet 1704


Biographies


Armes, armées et unités


Notions



Les traités de la guerre de succession d'Espagne : un dictionnaire historique et critique

De 1702 à 1714, la guerre de Succession d'Espagne a touché la majeure partie de l'Europe et des parties importantes du Nouveau Monde, avec des batailles allant des plaines hongroises aux ports de Rio de Janeiro. La mort du dernier roi des Habsbourg d'Espagne a déclenché une lutte pour son empire. Ce livre comprend des entrées analysant les individus qui ont déterminé le cours de la guerre, qui ont joué un rôle diplomatique, économique ou militaire, ainsi que des entrées analysant les batailles cruciales influençant le résultat. Les dispositions des traités définitifs, connus sous le nom de pacification d'Utrecht, sont examinées en détail, de même que la portée de ces dispositions. Les diplomates d'Utrecht ont suivi les principes d'équilibre des pouvoirs, de compensation et de légitimité pour façonner la paix. La paix a fixé les frontières de l'Europe occidentale jusqu'à la convulsion de la Révolution française.

Le livre s'ouvre sur une introduction soulignant l'importance des dispositions des traités. L'ordre alphabétique des notices, les nombreux renvois, les bibliographies en fin de notices, un tableau généalogique, une chronologie et l'index rendent cet ouvrage facile d'utilisation.


Livres sur Sur les questions militaires

1-TPS11 SIMULATIONS DE TOURNANT # 11: Blenheim 1704 AD Britanniques, Hollandais, Autrichiens, Prussiens, Danois et divers alliés allemands d'un côté et Français, Bavarois et Irlandais combattant pour Louis de l'autre. Chaque unité du jeu représente une brigade avec chaque point de force de combat autour de 400 hommes ou 200 chevaux. Un hexagone sur la carte équivaut à 400 mètres. Un tour représente environ une heure d'action et le jeu peut durer jusqu'à 7 tours.

La bataille de Blenheim comprend : Une carte montée en couleur de 11 x 17 pouces 176 grands pions en couleur de 5/8 pouces découpés à l'emporte-pièce et un livre de règles de 12 pages. Niveau de compétence : moyen. 1 vol, 12 pgs 2019 US, CONTRE LA CHANCE
Coffret NEUF, disponible mi-octobre 2019 . 40,00 $ avec un rabais de 25% rct

1-75130 Boeri, Gianncarlo SPANISH ARMIES 1688-1697 Le CD contient du texte ainsi que des images couleur n/b et ampères. 1 vol, 1 pages 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-CD . 30,00 $

1-75140 Boeri, Gianncarlo ARMÉE DU DUTCH DE SAVOIE 1688-1713 Une édition révisée de son ouvrage sur l'Armée de Savoie 1688-1713. Le titre a changé en "Armée du duc de Savoie 1688-1713".

Bien qu'il y ait eu des changements mineurs et des ajouts au texte, Boeri a fourni des notes de bas de page considérablement élargies, ce qui a entraîné une augmentation du nombre de pages de texte de 27 à 51 pages. Le plus grand changement a été l'ajout de 20 planches en couleurs par Robert Hall. 1 vol, 1 pages 2012 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-CD, édition révisée . 20,00 $

1-11421 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH : SA VIE ET ​​TEMPS Excellente biographie, couvre les guerres de la Succession d'Espagne. Cartes, index, biblio. 1 vol, 1050 pages 2002 États-Unis, UNIVERSITÉ DE CHICAGO
NOUVEAU-pb . 30,00 $

1-11422 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH : SA VIE ET ​​TEMPS Excellente biographie, couvre les guerres de la Succession d'Espagne. Cartes, index, biblio. 1 vol, 1080 pages 2002 États-Unis, UNIVERSITÉ DE CHICAGO
NOUVEAU-pb . 30,00 $

2-198610 Dorrel, Nick LA DERNIÈRE CHANCE DE MARLBOROUGH EN ESPAGNE : La campagne espagnole de 1710 La série de campagnes militaires est un ensemble de livres qui examinent de plus près les campagnes dans divers conflits. L'objectif est de fournir au lecteur une vue détaillée d'une partie particulière d'un conflit, plutôt que d'essayer de décrire l'ensemble du conflit ou de se concentrer uniquement sur une seule bataille. La série fournit des informations sur les commandants, les armées, les batailles de la campagne et les OOB. La série est un bon point de départ pour ceux qui souhaitent en savoir plus sur un conflit particulier, que vous soyez un passionné d'histoire ou un joueur de guerre.

Le théâtre espagnol a joué un rôle crucial dans l'issue de la guerre de Succession d'Espagne et pourtant il n'est pas bien connu. Ce livre examine en détail la campagne vitale de 1710 dans la péninsule, y compris les cinq principales actions de la campagne. Cette campagne était la dernière chance pour les forces de Marlborough de prendre un avantage décisif sur ce théâtre important. La campagne a connu des hauts et des bas avant la défaite totale des espoirs de Marlborough et cela s'est avéré être un événement décisif dans l'issue de la guerre. 1 vol, 132 pages 2014 US, SUR LES QUESTIONS MILITAIRES
Couverture souple brochée NEUF. 40,00 $

2-208310 Dorrell, Nick L'AUTRE ARMÉE DE MARLBOROUGH : L'armée britannique et les campagnes de la Première Guerre de la Péninsule, 1702-1712 Un aspect souvent négligé de la guerre de Marlborough est sa campagne cruciale en Espagne et au Portugal, également connue sous le nom de Première Guerre de la Péninsule de 1702- 1712. Bien que cette campagne ait été cruciale pour l'issue de la guerre, relativement peu d'informations sont disponibles à son sujet ou sur l'armée qui l'a combattue. Cet ouvrage fournit non seulement un aperçu détaillé de l'armée qui a mené les campagnes espagnoles et portugaises de la guerre de Marlborough, mais il offre également un aperçu du déroulement de la guerre en Ibérie. Il vise à fournir plus de détails et de compréhension sur une partie relativement peu connue d'une guerre qui a contribué à façonner et à renforcer la position de la Grande-Bretagne parmi les principaux acteurs européens.

Plusieurs chapitres examinent les contingents nationaux qui composaient les armées confédérées combattant en Espagne et au Portugal. L'ouvrage se concentre non seulement sur la contribution britannique relativement bien connue, mais aussi sur le rôle tout aussi important des contingents autrichiens, hollandais, palatins, portugais et espagnols moins connus.

Ces chapitres fournissent des informations générales sur les unités impliquées, leur organisation, leurs tactiques et d'autres détails pertinents. Dans d'autres chapitres, l'ouvrage se concentre en détail sur les développements des campagnes espagnoles et portugaises au cours de chaque année de la guerre. Sont également fournis : des détails sur la composition des armées dans chaque campagne, leurs activités et batailles, la taille des unités si elle est connue, et plus encore pour chaque année. L'attention est portée non seulement sur l'engagement le plus célèbre d'Almanza, mais aussi sur les autres batailles et escarmouches des campagnes ibériques. 1 vol, 200 pages 2019 Royaume-Uni, HELION ET COMPAGNIE
NOUVEAU-broché. $35.00 avec un rabais de 15% rct

1-209300 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WAR MACHINE : 1702-1711 Blenheim, Ramilles , Oudenarde, Malplaquet - on a beaucoup écrit sur les brillantes victoires de l'armée anglo-néerlandaise du duc de Marlborough sur les armées de Louis XIV de France pendant la guerre de la Succession d'Espagne. Met également l'accent sur les hommes et l'organisation militaire qui ont rendu ces réalisations possibles - les soldats, les commandants, la structure de l'armée, l'administration, la logistique, l'ingénierie, les armes et les finances. 1 vol, 256 pages 2015 Royaume-Uni, STYLO ET ÉPÉE
NEW-dj, disponible mi-août 2015 . 50,00 $ avec un rabais de 15 %

1-210350 Falkner, James LA GUERRE DE SUCCESSION D'ESPAGNE 1701 - 1714 La guerre de Succession d'Espagne, menée entre 1701 et 1714 pour décider qui devait hériter du trône d'Espagne, était un conflit d'une ampleur sans précédent, s'étendant sur la majeure partie de l'Europe occidentale, la haute mer et les Amériques.

Dans un récit clair et perspicace, il décrit et analyse les manœuvres politiques complexes et une série de campagnes militaires qui impliquaient également la menace posée par les Turcs ottomans à l'est et la Suède et la Russie au nord. Les combats ont eu lieu non seulement en Europe, mais dans les Amériques et au Canada, et en haute mer. Toutes les puissances européennes, grandes et petites, étaient impliquées - la France, l'Espagne, la Grande-Bretagne, la Hollande, l'Autriche et le Portugal étaient les principaux acteurs.

Le résultat final de 11 ans de guerre pure et simple était un prince français fermement établi sur le trône à Madrid et une division de l'ancien empire espagnol. Plus particulièrement cependant, la puissance française, auparavant si dominante, a été freinée pendant près de 90 ans. 1 vol, 280 pages 2015 Royaume-Uni, STYLO ET ÉPÉE
NOUVEAU-dj . 50,00 $ avec un rabais de 15 %

2-89560 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WARS EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS 1702-1713 De nombreux livres ont été écrits sur les victoires célèbres du 1er duc de Marlborough, mais aucune des études précédentes ne s'est vraiment concentrée sur la façon dont la guerre était perçue par les hommes et les femmes qui y ont participé - ceux qui ont vécu l'action de première main. James Falkner a rassemblé une sélection vivante de récits contemporains de chaque aspect de la guerre pour créer une image panoramique mais minutieusement détaillée de ces années de troubles.

L'histoire est racontée à travers des mémoires, des lettres, des documents officiels, des dépêches, des articles de journaux et des témoignages oculaires des côtés français et alliés du conflit.

Son récit de liaison fournit une analyse pénétrante de la stratégie et des tactiques de guerre à l'époque. 1 vol, 256 pages 2020 UK, LIVRES STYLO ET ÉPÉES
NEW-pb, nouvelle édition brochée disponible fin mai 2020 . 40,00 $ avec un rabais de 15% rct

1-89620 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S SIÈGES Analyse bien détaillée des nombreux sièges que le duc a menés. Croquis, dessins et cartes N/B des forts & les campagnes pour les réduire. Notes de chapitre, biblio, index. 1 vol, 268 pages 2007 Royaume-Uni, SPELLMOUNT PRESS
NOUVEAU-dj . 50,00 $

1-34280 Foure, Pierre COULEURS DE L'INFANTERIE FRANÇAISE SOUS LOUIS XIV-VOL1 Fait partie d'un ensemble de trois couvrant les années 1638 à 1715, de nombreuses illustrations n/b et (4) pages en couleurs. 1 vol, 32 pages 1994 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NOUVEAU-broché. 10,00 $

1-34282 Foure, Pierre COULEURS DE L'INFANTERIE FRANÇAISE SOUS LOUIS XIV-VOL2 Fait partie d'un ensemble de trois couvrant les années 1638 à 1715, de nombreuses illustrations n/b et (4) pages en couleurs. 1 vol, 32 pages 2000 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NOUVEAU-broché. 10,00 $

1-75150 Goldberg, Claus-Peter & Robert Hall ARMÉE DE L'ÉLECTORAT PALATINE 1690-1716 Le CD contient du texte ainsi que des images en couleur n/b et amp. 1 vol, 1 pages 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-CD . 25,00 $

1-74530 Grant, C. S. ARMIES AND UNIFORMS OF MARLBOROUGH'S WARS, LA Deuxième édition combine deux volumes déjà publiés en un seul tout en réorganisant une partie du texte et en apportant quelques modifications mineures dans un format plus grand. Couvre les armées et les batailles d'Europe du Nord mieux connues de la guerre de Succession d'Espagne, ainsi que les armées et les actions majeures en Espagne, au Portugal et en Italie. Plaques d'uniformes de feu Bob Marrion. 1 vol, 152 pages 2016 Royaume-Uni, PARTIZAN PRESS
NOUVEAU-hardcover. 52,00 $

1-211980 Hall, Robert CD UNIFORMES ET DRAPEAU : Les armées de Hanovre, Celle et Brunswick - 1670-1715 Le CD contient de nouvelles informations mises à jour.

Nombre de plaques de couleur :
Hanovre : 55 : incl. 13 cavaliers, 4 dragons, 19 fantassins
Celle 15 : incl. 3 cavalerie, 2 dragons, 8 fantassins
Brunswick 27 : incl. 5 cavalerie, 4 dragons, 9 infanterie

En ce qui concerne Hanovre, nous avons trouvé de nombreux documents, jusqu'alors inconnus, à la fois sur les drapeaux et les étendards de 1674 à 1700 ainsi que des informations uniformes très complètes, en particulier pour la période 1682-1694, tandis qu'un document important écrit par les colonels de Celle documentait les différences entre les armées en 1705. 1 vol, 248 pages 2016 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 50,00 $

1-219730 Hall, Robert FLAGS & UNIFORMS OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY 1688-1714 : 2e édition (2019) Cette 2e édition de compilation est un CD (pas un livre).

La première édition d'Infanterie française a été publiée en 2001. En 2015, un supplément a été publié avec des informations supplémentaires glanées dans les recherches d'archives. Cette 2e édition contient à la fois ainsi que de nouvelles recherches. Ce livre est l'étude la plus complète de l'infanterie française disponible.

Plusieurs visites au Minutier Central des notaires de Paris aux Archives nationales de Paris en 2018 ont généré l'analyse et la documentation de plus de 190 contrats de notaire pour les uniformes. Plus de 290 régiments sont détaillés dans 548 pages, y compris tous les régiments irlandais, avec plus de 102 des 290 mis à jour avec de nouvelles informations.

Le CD de la 2e édition contient tout le texte ainsi que les planches en noir et blanc et 296 couleurs dont 121 sont nouvelles ou ont été mises à jour. 1 vol, 1 pages 2019 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 65,00 $

1-220010 Hall, Robert STANDARD & UNIFORMES DE LA CAVALERIE FRANÇAISE 1688-1714 : 2e édition (2019) Cette 2e édition de compilation est un CD (pas un livre).

Cette deuxième édition contient 258 pages et 75 planches en couleurs détaillant plus de 133 unités. Un regard plus complet sur la cavalerie française dans la période 1688-1714 serait difficile à trouver. 1 vol, 333 pages 2019 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 50,00 $ ct

1-221170 Hall, Robert GUIDONS & UNIFORMES DES DRAGOONS FRANÇAIS 1688-1714 : 2e édition (2019) La première édition des Dragons français a été publiée en 2001. En 2015, un supplément a été publié avec des informations supplémentaires glanées à partir de recherches archivistiques. Cette 2e édition contient à la fois ainsi que de nouvelles recherches.

Plusieurs visites au Minutier Central des Notaires de Paris aux Archives Nationales à Paris en 2018 ont généré l'analyse et la documentation des contrats de notaire pour les uniformes. Il y a 134 pages de texte, qui incluent des copies de ces contrats de notaire et il y a 48 planches en couleurs dont beaucoup illustrent les nouvelles informations glanées à partir de ces contrats. 1 vol, 1 pages 2019 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-CD, disponible fin août 2019 . 40,00 $ ct

1-75160 Hall, Robert ARMÉES DE MECKLENBURG & HOLSTEIN-GOTTORP 1650-1719 Le CD contient du texte ainsi que des images couleur n/b &. 1 vol, 1 pages 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-CD . 25,00 $

1-80880 Hall, Robert UNIFORMES MILITAIRES DE L'ÉLECTORAT DE COLOGNE Le CD contient (14) COLOR PLAQUES 1 vol, 60 pgs 2005 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 15,00 $

1-84610 Hall, Robert DRAPEAUX & UNIFORMES DE L'ARMEE DE HESSE-KASSELL Le CD contient du texte ainsi que 23 pages couleur n/b &. 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 25,00 $

1-85930 Hall, Robert FLAGS & UNIFORMES HESSE-DARMSTRADT & UPPER RHINE CD contient du texte ainsi que (9) pages en couleur et (71) pages de texte sur Hesse-Darmstradt 1678-1739(11) pages en couleur et (110) pages de texte couvrant le cercle du Rhin supérieur 1664-1734. 1 vol, 201 pages 2007 États-Unis, DAN SCHORR
CD-nouveau. 25,00 $

2-RHDK01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. LIVGARDEN TIL FODS FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHDK02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. PRINCE CARL FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHDK03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. PRINCE GEORGE FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHDK04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. 1st JUTLAND HORSE 8.5x11 planche couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHDK05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. 1st SEELAND HORSE 8,5x11 planche couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHDK06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANOIS:I.R. 4TH JUTLAND HORSE 8.5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:ROYAL IRISH FOOT 8,5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:PORTMORE'S FOOT 8,5x11 plaque couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:CHURCHILL'S FOOT(Buffs) 8,5x11 plaque couleur, Couleurs/Standards/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:ORKNEY'S FOOT (Royal Scots) 8,5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:LUMLEY'S HORSE 8,5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:WOOD'S HORSE 8,5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

2-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:WOOD'S HORSE 8,5x11 plaque de couleur, couleurs/normes/uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:DR LEIBREGIMENT OF HORSE Planche couleur 8.5x11, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:KR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM planche couleur 8.5x11, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:DR VON SONDFELD HORSE 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR ANHALT-DESSAU FOOT Planche couleur 8.5x11, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR VARENNES FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR CANITZ FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR07 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM planche couleur 8.5x11, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR08 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR KRONPRINZ FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR09 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:KR L'OSTANGE HORSE 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR10 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR WULFFEN FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR11 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR HOLSTEIN-BECK FOOT 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RHPR12 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIE:IR LOTTUM, KR BRANDENBURG 8,5x11 planche couleur, Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pages 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMAN01 Hall, Robert DR Schmettau 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFC01 Hall, Robert CR Tremouille & CR Courcillon 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFC02 Hall, Robert CR Toulouse & CR Royal E 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFC03 Hall, Robert CR Royal Cravattes & CR Rosen 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFC04 Hall, Robert CR Ligondez & CR Harcourt 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFD01 Hall, Robert DR Le Roi & DR Bretagne 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFG01 Hall, Robert Gendarmes de la Garde Cheveaulegers de la Garde 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFG02 Hall, Robert 1. Company des Mousquetaires 2. Company des Mou Planche couleur 8.5x11 avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI01 Hall, Robert IR Picardie & IR Clare 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI02 Hall, Robert IR Gondrin & IR Royal Italien 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI03 Hall, Robert IR Alsace & IR Sparre 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI04 Hall, Robert IR Gardes Francaises IR Gardes Sui 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI05 Hall, Robert IR La Marck & IR Montroux 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMFI06 Hall, Robert IR St. Sulpice & IR Isenghien 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMHG01 Hall, Robert DR Dernath & DR Baudissin 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMHG02 Hall, Robert IR Barner & IR Aderkas 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-plaque . 8,00 $

1-RMHK01 Hall, Robert IR Pr Wilhelm & IR Pr Ludwig 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMHN01 Hall, Robert IR Bernstorff 1B & IR Ranzow 5B 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL01 Hall, Robert IR Pallandt 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL02 Hall, Robert IR Dutch Guards et IR Nassau 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL03 Hall, Robert IR Slangenburg & IR Salisch 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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2-RMNL04 Hall, Robert IR Albemarle 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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2-RMNL05 Hall, Robert IR Hirzel & IR Sturler 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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1-RMNL06 Hall, Robert IR Borthwick 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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2-RMNL07 Hall, Robert IR Murray & IR Colyear 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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1-RMNL08 Hall, Robert CR Oranje-Friesland & CR Driesbergen 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMNL09 Hall, Robert DR Dopff & CR Wurttemburg 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMPR01 Hall, Robert KR von der Heyden 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMSP02 Hall, Robert IR Zuniga 8,5x11 planche couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMSP03 Hall, Robert IR Girmaldi & IR Lede 8.5x11 plaque couleur avec couleurs/normes/uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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1-RMSP04 Hall, Robert DR Toulongeon 8.5x11 planche couleur avec Couleurs/Normes/Uniformes 1 vol, 1 pages 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
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2-75120 Hall, Robert & Yves Roumegoux MILICE FRANÇAISE, ARTILLERIE & BOMBARDIERS L'Artillerie et les Bombardiers Français sous Louis XIV - Organisation, Drapeaux et Uniformes. 1 vol, 80 pages 2019 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, nouvelle édition modifications mineures, disponible fin août 2019 . 30,00 $ ct

1-74820 Hall, Robert et Boeri, Giancarlo UNIFORMES ET DRAPEAU DE L'ARMÉE IMPÉRIALE AUTRICHIENNE 1683-1720 CD avec plus de 260 pages et (56) planches en couleurs. Il s'agit d'une toute nouvelle révision et mise à jour du livret Kuhn avec toutes les « nouvelles » plaques. 1 vol, 1 pages 2009 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 45,00 $

1-201440 Hall, Robert et Stanford, Ian et Roumegoux, Yves UNIFORMES ET DRAPEAU DE L'ARMEE HOLLANDAISE ET DE L'ARMEE DE LIEGE 1685-1715 Nouvelle édition révisée avec plus de 450 pages de texte et 70 planches en couleurs. 1 vol, 520 pages 2013 États-Unis, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 60,00 $

1-215330 Hattendorf, John MARLBOROUGH : soldat et diplomate John Churchill, le premier duc de Marlborough, a longtemps été considéré comme l'un des plus grands généraux britanniques ainsi qu'une figure politique anglaise clé de la première décennie du XVIIIe siècle. Illustrations en couleur partout.

Le sujet de nombreux livres en anglais, Marlborough n'a généralement été vu qu'en termes d'histoire politique et militaire britannique. Dans ce livre, 12 grands spécialistes de l'époque élargissent la perspective en évaluant Marlborough dans les contextes plus larges et plus divers de la situation européenne, le simple soldat de l'armée britannique, les activités complémentaires des marines, les perspectives différentes des Autrichiens, des Néerlandais , français et allemands ainsi que dans le contexte de la presse populaire britannique et des arts visuels. 1 vol, 408 pages 2012 PAYS-BAS, KARWANSARAY
NEW-dj, disponible fin octobre 2017 . 85,00 $ avec un rabais de 15 %

1-65280 Hoglund, Lars-Eric et Sallnas, Ake GRANDE GUERRE DU NORD 1700-21 : Couleurs et uniformes Volume 1 8x11,5 pouces. Comprend 30 plaques de couleur représentant des centaines de drapeaux, d'étendards et d'uniformes, ainsi que des détails complets sur les unités d'infanterie et de cavalerie suédoises, finlandaises, norvégiennes, danoises et allemandes. 1 vol, 158 pages 2000 SUÈDE, ACEDIA PRESS
NOUVEAU-broché, disponible à nouveau prix inférieur . 75,00 $

1-78440 Hussey, John MARLBOROUGH:The hero of Blenheim Nouvelle bio concise de l'homme et son génie militaire l'auteur décrit, dans le contexte de l'époque, ses batailles/campagnes 40+ b/w maps/illust, biblio 1 vol, 224 pages 2005 Royaume-Uni, WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON
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1-74830 Kuhn, August révisé par Hall, Robert BRANDEBOURG-PRUSSIA'S ARMY UNDER FREDERICK 1ER CD contient du texte ainsi que des images couleur n/b et ampères. 1 vol, 1 pages 2001 US, DAN SCHORR
NOUVEAU-CD . 15,00 $

1-86680 Litten, Neil RAMILLIES : Chef-d'œuvre de Marlborough Nouvelle étude majeure, illustration en couleur, cartes. 1 vol, 230 pages 2007 Royaume-Uni, PARTIZAN PRESS
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1-80460 Millner, John Royal Regt of Foot of Ireland COMPENDIUM JOURNAL OF ALL THE MARCHES & BATTLES Rare compte rendu de première main, Millner était présent aux 10 batailles/sièges 1701-1712, non seulement il décrit les événements, il répertorie également les victimes et o/b, source de premier ordre. 1 vol, 364 pages 2004 ROYAUME-UNI, PRESSE NAVALE ET MILITAIRE
NEW-pb, fac-similé de l'édition 1733 . 40,00 $

1-1947619 Mugnai, Bruno L'ARMÉE IMPÉRIALE à l'époque du Prince Eugène de Savoie 1690-1720 : La Cavalerie - Volume 1 Le Volume 1 comprend huit pages en couleur, avec de nombreuses illustrations et cartes n/b. Texte italien, mais légendes anglaises des images. Toutes les planches en couleurs ont des traductions complètes en anglais.

Eugène, prince de Savoie-Carignano et comte de Soissons est devenu général à 24 ans et feld-maréchal à 27. Il est considéré comme le commandant le plus célèbre de l'histoire de l'armée impériale et dans certains milieux européens, considéré comme « l'empereur secret ». ' Après avoir été rejeté par Louis XIV de France, Eugène est allé en Autriche et a commencé une carrière torride sur le champ de bataille. Cette série de trois volumes détaille son histoire, l'organisation de l'armée, l'équipement et les uniformes de l'infanterie impériale. 1 vol, 80 pages 2012 ITALIE, SOLDAT SHOP
NOUVEAU-broché, [texte italien] . 32,00 $

1-1947620 Mugnai, Bruno L'ARMÉE IMPÉRIALE à l'époque du Prince Eugène de Savoie 1690-1720 : La Cavalerie - Volume 2 Le Volume 2 comprend huit pages en couleur, avec de nombreuses illustrations et cartes n/b. Texte italien, mais légendes anglaises des images. Toutes les planches en couleurs ont des traductions complètes en anglais.

Continue l'histoire d'Eugène, prince de Savoie-Carignano et comte de Soissons, ses prouesses sur le champ de bataille et les uniformes de l'armée.

1 vol, 80 pages 2020 ITALIE, SOLDAT SHOP
NOUVEAU-broché, [texte italien] . 32,00 $

1-199200 Owen, John Hely GUERRE EN MER SOUS LA REINE ANNE 1702-1708 Un compte rendu des opérations navales britanniques au début du XVIIIe siècle, ce livre comprend des descriptions vivantes des personnages importants de l'époque, tirées de recherches approfondies dans les documents originaux. Illustré de cartes et de portraits, il contient des annexes utiles sur l'organisation de la Marine et la composition de la flotte. 1 vol, 360 pages 2012 ROYAUME-UNI, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
NOUVEAU-broché. 41,00 $

1-2078563 Paoletti, Ciro L'ITALIE, LE PIÉMONT ET LA GUERRE DE SUCCESSION D'ESPAGNE : 1701-1712 La guerre de Succession d'Espagne est bien connue en anglais concernant la Flandre et l'Allemagne, peu concernant l'Espagne, pas du tout l'Italie. Le front italien était si important que les Français le considéraient aussi important que le front allemand, et y engageaient leurs meilleurs généraux. Guillaume III la considérait comme bien plus importante que l'Espagne et, malgré l'absence d'armée britannique là-bas, après la mort du roi Guillaume, Londres y engagea 1/10 de ses dépenses de guerre.

Elle était considérée comme si importante à Vienne que l'Empereur y envoya son meilleur général. C'est enfin le front où tous les Français espèrent soumettre l'Europe moururent à Turin en 1706 après la première blessure dramatique subie à Blenheim en 1704. 185 illustrations, cartes et plans n/b, planches couleurs 16 pages
1 vol, 356 pages 2021 Royaume-Uni, HELION ET COMPAGNIE
NOUVEAU-broché. 50,00 $ avec un rabais de 15 % rct

1-LEG1703 Pole, Steve BLENHEIM 1704 : 13 août 1704 La bataille de Blenheim 1704 est un jeu à deux joueurs de niveau tactique couvrant l'une des batailles cruciales de la guerre de Succession d'Espagne. Un joueur prend le rôle de Marlborough, commandant les forces britanniques et alliées, et l'autre de Tallard, menant les Franco-Bavarois. À Blenheim, Marlborough se retrouve confronté à une force franco-bavaroise supérieure dans une position défensive solide. Comme la grande victoire d'Hannibal à Cannes, Blenheim a été remportée par la mise en œuvre réussie d'un plan audacieux et imaginatif. Les flancs des forces franco-bavaroises ont été épinglés par des attaques furieuses à cotes défavorables qui ont dénudé leur centre de troupes redéployées pour étayer les ailes aux abois. Puis Marlborough lâcha sa cavalerie pour écraser ce qui restait du centre franco-bavaroise et scinder l'armée de Tallard en deux. La menace que la France de Louis XIV en vienne à dominer l'Europe était écartée.

Le système à sept hexagones (SHS) tire son nom de la carte qui est divisée en zones comprenant sept hexagones, ce qui permet au joueur d'adopter diverses positions dans une zone pour refléter différentes formations tactiques, ce qui augmente les chances de réussite d'une attaque ou de la défense. les unités resteront fermes. Le SHS intègre plusieurs fonctionnalités uniques destinées à reproduire de manière simple et intuitive les options disponibles pour un commandant (le wargamer) d'une grande armée. Ainsi, alors que le commandant a toute liberté pour élaborer un plan et pour une bonne part lors du positionnement d'unités qui n'ont pas encore rencontré l'ennemi, une fois la bataille engagée, les options deviennent de plus en plus limitées et des événements imprévus peuvent jouer un rôle dans la détermination de l'issue. Néanmoins, même au niveau tactique, les décisions d'un commandant sont cruciales pour façonner les événements. La clé du succès est un plan solide avec une marge d'erreur qui permet le malheur, le déploiement judicieux d'unités afin de pouvoir mettre en œuvre ce plan et l'engagement opportun des réserves.

Contient : une carte de 22 x 34 pouces, 88 pions, deux aides au jeu et un livre de règles de 20 pages.
1 vol, 1 pages 2017 États-Unis, LEGION WARGAMES LLC
NEW-box, disponible fin mars 2021 . 56,00 $ avec un rabais de 10% rct

1-19690 Sapherson, Californie FORCES DE LA COURONNE SUÉDOISE : 1688-1721 Le livret de 8,5 x 5,5 pouces couvre l'organisation, les régiments de fantassins, de chevaux et de dragons, l'artillerie, les drapeaux et les étendards, la marine et la répartition des forces suédoises en 1701. Comprend 32 mains en noir et blanc -dessin d'illustrations de drapeaux avec des détails de couleur d'accompagnement. 1 vol, 36 pages 2003 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-broché. 8,00 $

1-20930 Sapherson, Californie CAVALERIE FRANÇAISE, LES:1688-1715 Equipement, normes, organisation, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pages 2003 HOPEWELL, ÉDITION OMM
NOUVEAU-broché. 8,00 $

1-20950 Sapherson, Californie ARMÉES MARLBURIAN, 1701-1721 Listes d'armées pour (42) pays, Ansbach-Baureuth à Würzburg, biblio. 1 vol, 72 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-20980 Sapherson, C.A. IMPERIAL INFANTRY, THE:1691-1714 Equipment, standards, organization, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . 8,00 $

1-22370 Sapherson, C.A. DANISH ARMY THE: 1699-1715 Covers organization, uniforms, and standards, and includes black and white drawings, appendix, and a bibliography. 1 vol, 40 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover, back in print . 8,00 $

2-15370 Schorr, Dan SWEDISH COLORS & STANDARDS OF THE GREAT NORTHERN W 8x11, packed with flag details & more, biblio. 1 vol, 64 pgs 1987 VA, EDITIONS BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $12.00

1-75420 Stanford, Ian MARLBOROUGH GOES TO WAR:Blenheim-Campaign & Battle The most detailed O/B's for the opposing armies onthe day of battle, appendicies, biblio, index. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2004 UK, PIKE & SHOT SOCIETY
NEW-pb, 2nd edition . 22,00 $

2-72070 Watson, J.N.P. MARLBOROUGH'S SHADOW:Life of the 1st Earl Cadogan This is the story of Marlborough's 'right hand',his Chief of Staff, Quartermaster General andChief of Intelligence, b/w illust, biblio, index. 1 vol, 224 pgs 2003 LONDON, LEO COOPER BOOKS
NEW-dj . 20,00 $


15th Century - The Beginning of the Spanish Empire

The king of Aragon Ferdinand and Castile's Isabella got married, unifying two neighboring kingdoms into one. At that time it was not known as Spain yet, and it wouldn't be for a few years still, but it was the beginning of something great. Isabella and Ferdinand were known as the Catholic Monarchs. Their religious belief is, supposedly, what pushed them to reconquer Andalusia, with its centre in Granada, the southern part of the Peninsula, for quite a few centuries in moorish hands. When this was accomplished they were ready for more.

While Spain expanded south of its own territory, with the conquest of Melilla in the North of Africa, an even bigger chance presented itself in form of a Genovese sailor, Christopher Columbus, who had a sailing project to find a new route to the Indies. Isabella was interested and funded his voyage. As luck would have it, he did not find what he was looking for, but as luck would have it, something much bigger and that would bring much wealth to Spain in the future: a new continent, today known as America. Et donc le Spanish Empire commence.


Utrecht, 1713. A Peace possible for Europe

The Treaties of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, a conflict that in recent years has been the subject of intense historical debate. The Peace of Utrecht is now analyzed from different perspectives. During negotiations, Philip V of Spain tried to impose their conditions, but eventually he had to accept the agreement of Louis XIV of France with the Maritime powers. The Spanish king had to renounce to the French throne –something h e never really admitted–, and lost his Spanish territories in Europe. He kept instead the Empire in America, being the content of the Treaties regarding colonial trade the subject of a growing historiographical interest. This contribution analyzes also the position of Charles VI of Austria, who claimed the Spanish throne and faced the peace negotiations from a position of apparent strength –although in the final stage of the war he was guided by conflicting interests regarding the rigid defense of his two main scenarios: Catalonia and Italy. In Utrecht-Rastatt, Spanish Habsburg hegemony in Italy was transferred to the Habsburgs of Vienna and this new domain was interpreted in terms of continuity. The Peace of Utrecht is considered a major European peacekeeping project, but it failed to forget a conflict that still remains close in memory.


War over Italy

It is rare that the victims of war are put into the limelight – reports usually speak only of ‘glorious’ or ‘tragic’ battles – but one man’s grim experience of war at Solferino moved him to found a humanitarian relief organization.

Horace Vernet: The French under the command of Napoleon III attacking with cavalry and infantry at Solferino, painting, 19th century

The war in Italy against Piedmont-Sardinia and France led to the Habsburgs losing Lombardy, acquired in 1714 at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, to Piedmont in 1859. Venetia had been given to the Habsburgs in the course of the Napoleonic wars in compensation for their temporary loss of Lombardy, which had gone to the Corsican Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna confirmed Habsburg possession of both provinces. As early as 1848 Piedmont-Sardinia had attempted to conquer Lombardy, but had been defeated by the Habsburg commander Field Marshal Radetzky. Piedmont-Sardinia finally achieved victory over the Habsburgs through alliance with France, thus opening up the path to the national unification of Italy.

The infamous high point of this war was the battle of Solferino, in which Austria suffered their decisive defeat on 24 June 1859. The horrors of this battle, which were reckoned with by Emperor Franz Joseph (even though he himself was ‘not conscious of any guilt’), were described by the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant, an eyewitness, as follows: ‘It is a terrible man-to-man battle. Soldiers are treading each other underfoot, knocking each other down with their rifle butts, smashing open their opponents’ heads and slicing open their stomachs with sabre or bayonet … Even the wounded defend themselves to the last. When they have no weapon, they seize their opponent and bite his throat open. Elsewhere … the cavalry carves its way over the dead and dying … bodies are turned into formless masses. The earth is literally soaked in blood, and the ground is bespattered with unrecognizable human remains.’ These terrible experiences motivated Dunant to found the Red Cross, which today is one of the world’s largest humanitarian relief organizations.


4.5 Wars for Empire

Wars for empire composed a final link connecting the Atlantic sides of the British Empire. Great Britain fought four separate wars against Catholic France from the late 1600s to the mid-1700s. Another war, the War of Jenkins’ Ear, pitted Britain against Spain. These conflicts for control of North America also helped colonists forge important alliances with native peoples, as different tribes aligned themselves with different European powers.

GENERATIONS OF WARFARE

Generations of British colonists grew up during a time when much of North America, especially the Northeast, engaged in war. Colonists knew war firsthand. In the eighteenth century, fighting was seasonal. Armies mobilized in the spring, fought in the summer, and retired to winter quarters in the fall. The British army imposed harsh discipline on its soldiers, who were drawn from the poorer classes, to ensure they did not step out of line during engagements. If they did, their officers would kill them. On the battlefield, armies dressed in bright uniforms to advertise their bravery and lack of fear. They stood in tight formation and exchanged volleys with the enemy. They often feared their officers more than the enemy.

Cliquez et explorez

Read the diary of a provincial soldier who fought in the French and Indian War on the Captain David Perry Web Site hosted by Rootsweb. David Perry’s journal, which includes a description of the 1758 campaign, provides a glimpse of warfare in the eighteenth century.

Most imperial conflicts had both American and European fronts, leaving us with two names for each war. For instance, King William’s War (1688–1697) is also known as the War of the League of Augsburg. In America, the bulk of the fighting in this conflict took place between New England and New France. The war proved inconclusive, with no clear victor (Figure 4.16).

Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) is also known as the War of Spanish Succession. England fought against both Spain and France over who would ascend the Spanish throne after the last of the Hapsburg rulers died. In North America, fighting took place in Florida, New England, and New France. In Canada, the French prevailed but lost Acadia and Newfoundland however, the victory was again not decisive because the English failed to take Quebec, which would have given them control of Canada.

This conflict is best remembered in the United States for the French and Native raid against Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1704. A small French force, combined with a native group made up of Catholic Mohawks and Abenaki (Pocumtucs), attacked the frontier outpost of Deerfield, killing scores and taking 112 prisoners. Among the captives was the seven-year-old daughter of Deerfield’s minister John Williams, named Eunice. She was held by the Mohawks for years as her family tried to get her back, and became assimilated into the tribe. To the horror of the Puritan leaders, when she grew up Eunice married a Mohawk and refused to return to New England.

In North America, possession of Georgia and trade with the interior was the focus of the War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739–1742), a conflict between Britain and Spain over contested claims to the land occupied by the fledgling colony between South Carolina and Florida. The war got its name from an incident in 1731 in which a Spanish Coast Guard captain severed the ear of British captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for raiding Spanish ships in Panama. Jenkins fueled the growing animosity between England and Spain by presenting his ear to Parliament and stirring up British public outrage. More than anything else, the War of Jenkins’ Ear disrupted the Atlantic trade, a situation that hurt both Spain and Britain and was a major reason the war came to a close in 1742. Georgia, founded six years earlier, remained British and a buffer against Spanish Florida.

King George’s War (1744–1748), known in Europe as the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), was fought in the northern colonies and New France. In 1745, the British took the massive French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia (Figure 4.17). However, three years later, under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain relinquished control of the fortress to the French. Once again, war resulted in an incomplete victory for both Britain and France.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

The final imperial war, the French and Indian War (1754–1763), known as the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) in Europe, proved to be the decisive contest between Britain and France in America. It began over rival claims along the frontier in present-day western Pennsylvania. Well-connected planters from Virginia faced stagnant tobacco prices and hoped expanding into these western lands would stabilize their wealth and status. Some of them established the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1748, and the British crown granted the company half a million acres in 1749. However, the French also claimed the lands of the Ohio Company, and to protect the region they established Fort Duquesne in 1754, where the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers met.

The war began in May 1754 because of these competing claims between Britain and France. Twenty-two-year-old Virginian George Washington, a surveyor whose family helped to found the Ohio Company, gave the command to fire on French soldiers near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. This incident on the Pennsylvania frontier proved to be a decisive event that led to imperial war. For the next decade, fighting took place along the frontier of New France and British America from Virginia to Maine. The war also spread to Europe as France and Britain looked to gain supremacy in the Atlantic World.

The British fared poorly in the first years of the war. In 1754, the French and their native allies forced Washington to surrender at Fort Necessity, a hastily built fort constructed after his attack on the French. In 1755, Britain dispatched General Edward Braddock to the colonies to take Fort Duquesne. The French, aided by the Potawotomis, Ottawas, Shawnees, and Delawares, ambushed the fifteen hundred British soldiers and Virginia militia who marched to the fort. The attack sent panic through the British force, and hundreds of British soldiers and militiamen died, including General Braddock. The campaign of 1755 proved to be a disaster for the British. In fact, the only British victory that year was the capture of Nova Scotia. In 1756 and 1757, Britain suffered further defeats with the fall of Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry (Figure 4.18).

The war began to turn in favor of the British in 1758, due in large part to the efforts of William Pitt, a very popular member of Parliament. Pitt pledged huge sums of money and resources to defeating the hated Catholic French, and Great Britain spent part of the money on bounties paid to new young recruits in the colonies, helping invigorate the British forces. In 1758, the Iroquois, Delaware, and Shawnee signed the Treaty of Easton, aligning themselves with the British in return for some contested land around Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1759, the British took Quebec, and in 1760, Montreal. The French empire in North America had crumbled.

The war continued until 1763, when the French signed the Treaty of Paris . This treaty signaled a dramatic reversal of fortune for France. Indeed, New France, which had been founded in the early 1600s, ceased to exist. The British Empire had now gained mastery over North America. The Empire not only gained New France under the treaty it also acquired French sugar islands in the West Indies, French trading posts in India, and French-held posts on the west coast of Africa. Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War meant that it had become a truly global empire. British colonists joyously celebrated, singing the refrain of “Rule, Britannia! / Britannia, rule the waves! / Britons never, never, never shall be slaves!”

In the American colonies, ties with Great Britain were closer than ever. Professional British soldiers had fought alongside Anglo-American militiamen, forging a greater sense of shared identity. With Great Britain’s victory, colonial pride ran high as colonists celebrated their identity as British subjects.

This last of the wars for empire, however, also sowed the seeds of trouble. The war led Great Britain deeply into debt, and in the 1760s and 1770s, efforts to deal with the debt through imperial reforms would have the unintended consequence of causing stress and strain that threatened to tear the Empire apart.


Watteau’s Peacefully Bittersweet War Scenes

One of the most naturally gifted painters in the history of Western art, Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) has been beloved for his bucolic, operatic scenes of Rococo frivolity and elegant hedonism known as fêtes galantes. In his masterpiece “Pilgrimage to the Isle Cythera” (1717), aristocratic lovers attended to by fluttering cupids prepare to set off in a golden boat for the fabled island of love, the birthplace of Aphrodite. With his delicate, sensuously flickering touch, lush colors and luminous atmospheres, Watteau anticipated Impressionism, and his dreamlike visions of erotic yearning and melancholic hypersensitivity inspired the 20th-century Surrealists.

What are not so famous are paintings that first drew the attention of discerning collectors to Watteau, pictures focused on the lives of common soldiers in a time of war that he made between 1709 and 1715. While the military subject matter differs markedly from that of the fêtes galantes, there’s an allusive, bittersweet poetry about these early works that looks forward to the later scenes of pastoral dalliance. Of the seven such works known to have survived, four are featured along with 13 related drawings in “Watteau’s Soldiers: Scenes of Military Life in Eighteenth-Century France,” a captivating exhibition at the Frick Collection. Organized by Aaron Wile, a curatorial fellow at the Frick, it’s the first exhibition devoted to this subject.

Considering the subject matter, these works appear remarkably nonviolent. Ranging in width from about 12 inches to 20 inches, the paintings depict scenes far behind the front lines of battle. If you had only these images to go by, you wouldn’t know there was a war going on, much less one as horrendously bloody as the War of the Spanish Succession, an 18th-century worldwide conflict over France’s King Louis XIV’s attempt to take over the Spanish empire after the death of King Charles II of Spain.

Image

Made from life in red chalk, the drawings represent soldiers in tricorn hats, knee-length coats, knee-high socks and pointy shoes. They’re shown standing, lying down, kneeling and on horseback. They carry muskets, but they’re not shooting or bayoneting. Nor do their sketchily rendered faces reveal aggression, pain or fear. Watteau seems more interested in their clothes and he poses them in their humanity. They’re like mannequins animated by his wonderfully deft touch. In the studio, Watteau used these figures like paper dolls, translating them into paint on canvas and composing oddly disjunctive scenes that seem at once ordinary and mysterious.

The painting “The Portal of Valenciennes” (circa 1710-11) depicts seven soldiers gathered in a shady space near an old city wall. One is lying down napping, two are sitting and smoking pipes and the others, standing and bearing muskets, seem to be engaged in desultory conversation. In the hazy, blue distance, three more soldiers appear on a bridge leading to ancient buildings partly overgrown by plants, and a single sentry resembling a stone statue stands out on a rooftop against the sky. What is specifically going on, what these people are talking about and what they might be thinking is hard to say. Unlike neo-Classical paintings of the day, in which figures and their relationships were articulated with unnaturally glassy precision, Watteau’s paintings convey a feeling that other people are unfathomably mysterious.

In his excellent catalog essay, Mr. Wile sees in Watteau a shift in ideas about representing human psychology. Seventeenth-century neo-Classicists thought that a person’s character and inner life was revealed in his or her expressions. Mr. Wile writes about the influential academician and court painter Charles Le Brun, who believed that “once the mechanisms of the soul’s movements and their resulting effects on the exterior were discovered, the face could become a legible, because universal, sign of emotion.” Le Brun created a catalog of facial expressions that became widely popular as an aid for painters and sculptors.

The faces in Watteau’s paintings, however, are not transparently expressive. Like the faces of dolls with dots for eyes, they are, observes Mr. Wile, “remarkable for their opacity their faces reveal nothing about the contents of their minds, about their thoughts, emotions or desires.” Yet there’s something truthful in that obscurity, for who in our post-Freudian times would deny that faces — even those of our nearest and dearest — hide as much as they expose? In Watteau’s art, this psychological inscrutability extends to whole paintings, whose visible surfaces imply depths you can only guess at.

“The Halt” (circa 1710) arrays across the foreground 10 people resting under a spreading tree: seven soldiers and three women, one in drab, commoner’s garb — a soldier’s wife, maybe — and two in fancy gowns painted in jewel-bright colors who might be wives, lovers or prostitutes. The soldiers, one of whom has his arm in a sling and his head bandaged, appear exhausted. With its dreamy mood of ennui, it seems more than just a genre scene. It’s like a stop in an allegorical journey of life.

“The Supply Train” (circa 1715) feels like purgatory. Two women highlighted in the center sit on the ground next to a large kettle that is suspended over a campfire, while one tends to a baby in a cradle. An emaciated white pack horse stands behind them. To the right, a third woman sits with her back to us in the company of two reclining soldiers, one with his chin in hand gazing into space or, perhaps, into her eyes. A small dog sleeps in the immediate foreground next to a drum and a musket painted with miniaturist precision. In the distance, smoke rises beyond a ramshackle tent, and further afield more soldiers appear enshrouded by a misty gloom like ghosts.

The only painting representing concerted action is “The Line of March” (circa 1710). We see from behind a crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback funneling between stands of trees. They evidently are heading toward a battle, marked by a glowing conflagration far away near the horizon. There’s a processional, almost mythic feeling, as if they all were on a pilgrimage and that distant burst of light mystically beckoned them to an otherworldly end.


Advisor events [ edit ]

Ignacio de Loyola

Ignacio de Loyola was born in 1491 into a Basque noble family. He served as a soldier under Antonio Manrique de Lara, the Viceroy of Navarre - a Kingdom that Spain had conquered in 1512 - and was wounded in the Battle of Pamplona. When the French army, supporting the expelled Navarrese monarchy, stormed the city on May 20, 1521, Loyola was hit by a cannonball that severely injured both his legs. During the long and painful recovery, Ignacio read a translated version of Ludolph of Saxony's 'De Vita Christi' - a commentary on the life of Jesus that had a great influence on Loyola. He abandoned his military life and decided to devote himself entirely to serving God. In 1534 he and six companions formed the Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, devoted to opposing heresy and actively promoting the counter-reformation.

The year is between 1521 and 1556.

  • Gain 50 administrative power
  • Gain 25 papal influence
  • Gain skill 2 Theologian advisor named Ignacio de Loyola (50% cheaper to employ)

Baltasar de Zuniga

Baltasar de Zuniga came from a powerful Spanish noble family. He served Philip III as ambassador to Brussels, Paris and Vienna between 1599 to 1617. In the latter position he was instrumental in Spain's intervention in the Thirty Years War. In 1618 he managed to remove the Duke of Lerma as Philip III's key advisor, a position he then overtook himself. De Zuniga's nephew, Olivares, was placed in the household of Prince Philip - later Philip IV - to assure continued dominance at the royal court.

The year is between 1591 and 1622.

  • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
    • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

    Olivares

    The Duke of Olivares led the Spanish government between 1621 and 1643, under King Philip IV (1621-1665) whom he was enjoying the favor. He was devious and cunning leader, he involved Spain in the Thirty Years War alongside the Imperials and had the war with Holland renewed. This proved disastrous and precipitated Spanish decline, with secession of both Catalonia (reunited 1652) and Portugal in 1640. Under his governments, poetry, literature (Calderon) and painting (El Greco, Velasquez, and Murillo) prospered and Spanish modes and customs spread across Europe.

    The year is between 1617 and 1645.

    Set country flag SPA_had_event_3711

    • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
      • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

      Alberoni

      Born in 1664 the son of a gardener in Fiorenzuela (near Placentia, Italy), Giulio Alberoni owned his political career and success to the Duke of Vendôme, the French general whom he served in Italy, France and Spain. Agent of the Duke of Parma, he facilitated the wedding of Philip V of Spain with Elizabeth Farnese and become a Cardinal in 1717. His bellicose policy in Spain had him expelled in 1719. He was cunning and sly, but Spain did not have the resources needed to fulfill his ambitious plan. The Age of Spanish Supremacy was long gone.

      The year is between 1694 and 1752.

      • Gain 100 diplomatic power
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        • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

        Jose Moñino

        After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain (1767), Moñino was sent to Rome as ambassador to obtain the papal suppression of the Society of Jesus. He was ennobled (1773) for the success of his mission. In 1776 Charles III appointed him chief minister. Under Conde de Floridablanca, as he was simply known in Spain, the Spanish enlightened despotism reached its peak, and his internal reforms, notably in finance, helped centralize the state. This, however, brought him into conflict with especially the Aragonese faction at court who accused him of embezzlement. After serving a three-year sentence he withdrew from public life. At the age of eighty he made a comeback into political life as he accepted the title of President of the Supreme Central and Governmental Junta that led the defense against Napoleon in 1808.

        The year is between 1758 and 1808.

        • Gain 100 administrative power
        • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
          • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

          Isabelle de Castille

          While not the primary candidate for the throne few can deny the talents and virtues of the young princess Isabella. As a daughter of the powerful Trastamara family she has managed to secure powerful allies through marriage who support her claim to our throne. Few can tell what the future has in store for our country but even for those who are unhappy with the rule of [Root.Monarch.GetName] Isabella is held to be a given candidate to be [Root.Monarch.GetHerHis] successor.

          • Est Castile or Spain if Castile does not exist
          • Does not have a regency.
          • Government type is a monarchy.
          • Government reform allow heirs.
          • Is not the lesser partner in a personal union.
          • Does not have the Castilian Civil War disaster.

          The year is between 1450 and 1504.

          Get a new, 23 years old, female heir Isabelle de de Trastámara dynasty with:

          • 95 claims strength,
          • 5 administrative skill,
          • 6 diplomatic skill,
          • 3 military skill.
          • has Castillian culture.
          • a ‘Expansionist’ personality.
          • Gain 100 administrative power.
          • Gain 100 diplomatic power.
          • Gain 100 military power.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .
          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman advisor with skill 2 nommé Isabel de Trastámara.

          La Malinche

          Born near the border between the Aztec Empire and the Mayan-speaking Yucatan Peninsula, La Malinche was sold into slavery by her family and eventually given to us as tribute. While she initially only spoke Nahuatl and Mayan dialects, but no [Root.GetAdjective], we had an interpreter who spoke [Root.GetAdjective] and some Mayan, setting up a relay until she had learned enough [Root.GetAdjective] to translate on her own. As translator and active participant in the Conquest, La Malinche was so prominent that she was almost invariably portrayed accompanying the conquistadors in native sources. Conquistadors agreed that she was critical to the expedition, with at least one describing her as the second most important contributor after God himself.

          • est Spain , has its capital in Europe and has discovered Central America or Mexico,
          • has a capital in Europe and owns any province in Central America or Mexico.

          The year is between 1500 and 1600.

          • Gain access to a female discounted diplomat with skill 2 nommé La Malinche.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain a new female conquistador named La Malinche avec:

          Juana Inés de la Cruz

          The Tenth Muse', Juana Inés de la Cruz is called, is a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school and a Hieronymite nun. She became a nun to be able to study as she wished, she wanted 'to have no fixed occupation which might curtail my freedom to study.'. The monastery's library has grown with Juana Inés de la Cruz's collection of books and writings. She has defended women's right to education in her letter 'Respuesta a Sor Filotea' - 'Reply to Sister Philotea', something that has brought the attention of many clerical men and their condemnation of her.

          The year is between 1650 and 1700.

          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman with skill 2 nommé Juana Inés de la Cruz.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain the “Juana Ines de la Cruz” country modifier for 20 years, giving:

          Inés de Suárez

          Born in Plasencia, Extremadura, Spain, Inés de Suárez came to South America to find her husband only to find that he died before she reached the New World. She became part of Pedro de Valdivia's expedition who set out to establish the capital of the territory. Suárez treated the sick and wounded, found water for them in the desert, and saved Valdivia when one of his rivals tried to undermine his enterprise and take his life. The city was founded in a fertile vally with an abundance of fresh water but also many natives who disapproved of the new settlers. Inés de Suárez took charge and defended the city against a native attack. Clad in a coat of mail, a helmet and a hide cloak over her shoulders, she rallied the soldiers on her white horse and encouraged them with words of praise. She led the men herself and the natives was driven away from the town. Her bravery led to a victory, and had it not been for her, the city would have fallen and the colonial expansion thwarted.

          The year is between 1507 and 1580.

          Gain access to a female discounted colonial governor with skill 2 nommé Ines de Suarez.

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          Guerre de Succession d'Espagne

          Les Guerre de Succession d'Espagne (1702-13) was a European war the North American portion of this war was Queen Anne's War. The war was fought over the European balance of power the Spanish King Charles II had willeded his kingdom to Philip V, a grandson of the French King Louis XIV. A coalition thus fought the war in order to prevent a merging of Spain and France. The war was concluded by the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714).

          Origines

          King Charles II of Spain was an invalid from a very young age, and it was clear that he would never produce an heir. The issue of who would rule the Spanish kingdoms after his death became quite contentious. Through his mother Maria Theresa of Spain, an older sister of Charles II, the Dauphin, only legitimate son of Louis XIV, was the most direct heir, but he was a problematic choice: as the heir to the French throne, if he gained both crowns, it would amount to an annexation of Spain and her vast colonial empire by France, at a time when France was already powerful enough to threaten the European balance of power.

          The alternative candidates were Emperor Leopold I, a first cousin of the late king and Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. The former presented similarly formidable problems, for Leopold's success would have reunited the powerful Spanish-Austrian Habsburg empire of the 16th century. Although Leopold and Louis were both willing to defer their claims to a younger line of their family - Leopold to his younger son Archduke Charles and Louis to the Dauphin's younger son, the Duc d'Anjou, the Bavarian prince remained a less threatening candidate. As a result, Joseph Ferdinand was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands.

          The War of the Grand Alliance, with essentially the same groupings of countries fighting over different issues, had come to an end just as the Spanish succession was becoming critical. War exhaustion led England and France to agree on the First Partition Treaty, which designated Joseph Ferdinand as heir, in return for which the Dauphin and Archduke Charles received territory in Italy.

          Joseph Ferdinand died abruptly the next year, which led to the Second Partition Treaty. Under the terms of that agreement, Charles was to become heir, but the Italian territories that had been parcelled out amongst the two men would now go entirely to France. While France, The Netherlands, and England were all happy with the new arrangement, Austria was not and vied for the entire Spanish inheritance. While the wrangling continued, Charles II unexpectedly spoke out and bequeathed his empire to Anjou, thus keeping the two thrones separate. Louis backed out of the treaty, his grandson was crowned King as Philip V, and the remaining interested parties acquiesced with misgivings.

          Unfortunately, Louis overplayed his hand. He threatened a mercantilist policy in the Spanish/French dominions (thus cutting England and Holland off from Spanish trade) and recognized Philip as his heir, passing over the Dauphin and the Dauphin's eldest son. In 1701, following the death of James II of England, a pensioner at Louis' court, Louis recognized his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender", as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, thus alienating the English. The war began slowly, with Austrian forces under Prince Eugene of Savoy invading the Spanish territories in Italy. France soon intervened, which in turn brought in England, Holland and most of the German states. Minor powers Bavaria, Portugal, and (perversely) Savoy sided with France and Spain.

          Course of the War

          There were two main theaters of the war in Europe: Spain itself and West-Central Europe, especially the Low Countries (although there was also important fighting in Italy and Germany). The latter proved the more important, as Eugene and the English commander, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders. At first, France was successful in the Alsace, and threatened the Austrian capital, but the two generals managed to link up in Bavaria and won the Battle of Blenheim. France's trans-Rhine ambitions were crushed, and the French were forced into a defensive posture. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Portugal and Savoy changed sides.

          In Spain, Valencia and Catalonia switched side in favour of the Austrian pretender, Charles. A British fleet, sent to support Catalans, captured Gibraltar, a possession they held throughout the Siege of Gibraltar and hold to this day.

          Marlborough and Eugene split forces again, with the former going to the Netherlands, and the latter to Italy. Over the next two years, each drove the French back from those territories, with Marlborough winning the notable Battle of Ramillies.

          In 1707, April 25, Batle of Almansa (Valencian country) Austriacist army was defeated by the Borbonic army. Then the war in Spain settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not emerge.

          The French fought back, and managed to stall Eugene's invasion into the south of the country, and Marlborough got caught up in an endless succession of fortresses in and around Flanders. In 1708, Eugene and Marlborough once again managed to link up, and defeated the French again at the Battle of Oudenarde. An attempt to march on Paris resulted in the Battle of Malplaquet, which was won by the two generals but at such a cost to their forces that this final invasion had to be called off.

          Paix

          Britain began to get cold feet, too, as an over-decisive victory for Austria would be almost as bad for their interests as one for the French and Spanish. Marlborough fell out of grace with the English (or rather, now, British) crown and with the new Tory government and was recalled. Peace negotiations with France led to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, in which England, Holland, and France ceased fighting with one another, and Great Britain left the Catalans alone to fight for themselves.

          In 1714, September 11, Barcelona surrendered to the Borbonic army after a long siege. The Franco-Austrian hostilities lumbered on until September 1714, before the signing of the Treaty of Baden.

          With the Peace of Utrecht, the wars to prevent French hegemony that had dominated the 17th century were over for the time being. Philip became the Spanish king, but was removed from the French succession. Louis XIV also agreed to stop supporting the Stuart claim to the throne of England. The Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Milan were ceded to Austria Sicily (replaced by Sardinia in 1720) was ceded to Savoy Britain was given the exclusive right to slave trading in Spanish America Gibraltar and Minorca were transferred from Spain to the UK and a variety of French colonial possessions were given to Britain.

          In 1715 the Bourbon king Philip V of Spain abolished the constitutions of Kingdom of Valencia and Principality of Catalonia with the Decreto de Nueva Planta.